Rabbi Zeira, and some say Rabbi Ĥinnana bar Pappa, said: Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He.
The attribute of flesh and blood is that an empty vessel holds that which is placed within it, while a full vessel does not hold it.
The attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, however, is not so, as if God adds to a person who is a full vessel in terms of knowledge or good attributes, he will hold it; a person who is an empty vessel will not hold it.
It is difficult to speak about the state of one’s spirit, of the plane of emotion that runs deeper than the surface. We are forever employing forms of metaphor that only hint at the feelings, and we hope that we make ourselves understood through their use.
We speak of being high or low, open or closed, sensitive or numb. And another of the key distinctions we use is between feeling full and empty.
We speak of fullness in terms of an abundance, of love, of energy, of will. And it can also denote a certain contentment, completeness, peacefulness.
And we make speak of emptiness in terms of exhaustion and lethargy, and also in terms of impatience, irritability and a lack of concern.
What is quite perplexing though, and what the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan particularly emphasised, is that out of this absence, out of this emptiness, often emerges desire. We might have thought that desire springs from a fullness of life, out of a sense of strength and of energy. But no, it is not so; in his view desire is born out of emptiness, out of a lack.
We should probably clarify what we mean here by desire. Desire is not the healthy activity of fulfilling our genuine needs that comes about naturally, that is a basic expression of our personality and life force. No, desire here is something more alien, something which is sought out in order to fill a void, in order to overcome the emptiness, in order to make us feel real.
Desire in this sense is seeking out stimulation, provocation, excitement, but doing it because we are otherwise too dead, because we are unable to connect with genuine energy, because the reality of our life is simply not what we want it to be, it doesn’t motivate us sufficiently.
To be sure, it is not always easy to distinguish between the healthy activity born of fullness and the desperate desire born out of emptiness. It is perhaps the hardest thing in life to be able to read our own desire and know whether or not it is real, to discern whether it comes from a place of happiness or a river of sadness. The words, the ideas, they can help, they are tools, but they never do the job on their own, the work is truly never completed.
But let us leave the question of desire for now and return to the idea of emptiness per se. As the Talmud observes, physical emptiness is something very different from spiritual emptiness. Physical emptiness is easily filled, and indeed, once filled, can be filled no more. There are limits to what can be contained, if we are existing on the purely physical plane.
In the realm of the spirit however, emptiness is not so easily corrected, it becomes a rut, a trap, an inescapable vortex of negative energy.
Fullness however, has a very different dynamic. Once it is attained, once the winds of inspiration have lifted us, it can continue to grow, to develop, to become richer.
But we can say more than this. The key to physical containment, to being able to hold on to the love and energy which animate us at times, is the ability to give it spiritual expression. When we successfully connect the two realms, when we are able to pour ourselves into something much bigger, into something which is greater than us yet intimately related to us, we achieve, quite literally, an expansion of our self.
The vastness of nature, the sense of the sublime, religious imagery of grandeur and infinity – all of these allow us to stretch out our imaginative muscles, to experience an expansiveness which our purely physical existence precludes.
Rachel Elior suggests that the intricate mystical constructs of the Kabbalists came out of a Spanish Jewry which was oppressed and constricted by the ravages of the Inquisition. The physical reality of their lives was so limited, so difficult, that it was only through growing new fields in the imagination that they were able to keep their spirit alive.
Our circumstances are different, but the demands of contemporary life often seem endless and thankless, and we too, in spite of our physical affluence and abundance can often be left trapped and empty. We too can find nourishment and space by engaging with the world of the spirit, by attempting to connect with something larger.
One of the things we desperately cry out for at this time of year, in the heightened emotion of the Selichot service, is that God should not take his Holy Spirit away from us – ‘v’ruach kodshecha al tikach mimenu’. We do not wish to be left abandoned, forsaken, we want to be full, to be complete, to be connected. We need the possibility of a spiritual grounding in order to maintain and to root our physical lives.
Indeed, we say every day in the Amida, ‘umilfanecha malkeinu raykam al t’shiveinu’ – ‘and from before you, our Majesty, do not return us empty’. The Divine presence is not something incidental, something that merely surrounds us. It is something we need to bring inside us, something to combat the emptiness which can otherwise wreak havoc on us and unleash all manner of unholy desires.
And I think it is no co-incidence that we stumble into this discussion in the midst of a discussion of how to say grace after meals. We seek fullness and satisfaction from food, and to an extent that is of course necessary and right. But there is always a danger lurking, the possibility that we confuse our spiritual thirst and hunger for something physical, and that we eat in the wrong way, and use food to fill the wrong holes.
In the discourse of fullness and emptiness, the worlds of the physical and the spiritual become enmeshed and entangled. The Talmud shows awareness of this, and recommends that we always listen, that we attend to what is really happening, and ensure that our responses are the right ones, the wise ones.