We continue today with the idea that prayer requires a certain level of concentration, that it’s about aiming for a certain emotional note.
We have a concrete example of how seriously this was taken:
R. Eleazar said: A man should always take stock of himself: if he can focus his attention and concentrate he should say the Tefillah, but if not he should not say it.
It’s been a while since I’ve seen anyone in shul get up to say the Amida then sit back down again, realising that he’s just not up to it. What a generation we are! What tremendous powers of focus and concentration we have been granted!
Interestingly, this dictum is actually brought as proof that someone could not possibly have prayed without concentration. They would have known about this saying and simply not prayed. So it seems that it was taken quite seriously, people really lived by it.
In another example Rabbi Yehuda HaNassi rules that it is preferable to continue riding on one’s donkey and pray rather than to get off and pray quickly. Knowing human nature, he figures that if one gets off to pray in the middle of one’s journey, one’s commute, that a person will just rush through it whilst worrying about the time. There will be nothing resembling reflection or contemplation; one’s connection to one’s spiritual anchor will in no way be strengthened.
In such a case, it seems, we might just be best to utter the following very short prayer:
The needs of Thy people Israel are many and their da’at – understanding, awareness – is small. May it be Thy will, O Lord our God, to give to each one his sustenance and to each body what it lacks. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who listens to prayer.
This truly is a micro-prayer, to be said when time is virtually non-existent. No build up, no warm down, just straight to the point.
And yet, it’s remarkably perceptive, it gets to the core of things very directly.
At one level, it simply says that we don’t have time to stop to articulate our needs, so please, God, you know what they are, you figure them out, and take care of them.
But on another level it’s saying more than this, it’s saying that we don’t ever really know what our needs are, that fundamentally we are out of touch with the unconscious yearnings and cravings which genuinely drive us. We don’t really have the faintest inkling of what we lack, of what’s behind the emptiness in our soul.
Even when we do pray, we might conjecture, we are trying to grapple with this, trying to figure it out. As we said yesterday, we are trying to become more conscious in prayer, we are trying to see ourselves more clearly, to gain a better sense of the need that defines us.
So there is a very strong tradition of finding the right mood, of prayer not being a rote performance. This is mythologised further as we start the next chapter:
One may only stand and begin to pray from an approach of gravity and submission. There is a tradition that the early generations of pious men would wait one hour, in order to reach the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer, and then pray, so that they would focus their hearts toward their Father in Heaven. Standing in prayer is standing before God and, as such, even if the king greets him, he should not respond to him; and even if a snake is wrapped on his heel, he should not interrupt his prayer.
An hour of preparation for prayer! That would truly be remarkable, and clearly, as even the Mishna seems to recognise, a little unrealistic. But maybe once in a while, once a month, once a year, we might meditate for an hour before prayer? Where oh where would that take us, what fresh psychic landscapes might open for us on that journey?
As part of a Shabbat service I was involved in a while ago we tried to meditate before prayer. It was definitely a help, it made one much more ready to engage with the possibilities that prayer presents.
The Talmud seeks to understand the source of this approach, from where do we learn that the point of prayer is to emotionally challenge us, to help us pierce the crust that forms around our personal holy of holies?
The sources are surprisingly human. We are not told to meditate on the wonders of creation, nor on the ways that the Divine might be manifest in the unfolding of history, in the gradual raising of humanity’s consciousness.
The first source is the prayer of Hannah, which turns out to be an archetypal prayer on many levels.
Hannah had been unable to have children, and she came to the temple at Shilo to pray:
And she felt anguish in her soul, and she prayed to the Lord and she wept and wept. (I Samuel 1:10)
This must have been an emotionally intense prayer. To even suggest that we connect with such pain is somewhat audacious; how could we possibly feel in that manner with such regularity?
The Talmud accepts this, it shies away from prescribing this level of feeling, but it doesn’t remove the benchmark altogether.
Next up we turn to King David, there are various verses which suggest that be brought a lot of awe and reverence to his prayer.
But we soon hone in one particular verse, and what’s notable about it is the emotional complexity it seems to both represent and mandate:
Serve the Lord in awe and rejoice with trembling. (Ps. 2:11)
Awe mixed with joy, combined with or resulting in a ‘trembling’, suggesting a very physical response to the stimulus.
I’m a bit stumped here, I’m not quite sure quite what this means, how we might think about it.
It sounds like a description of some kind of trance, of a person swept away from their everyday concerns and plunging deep into a sea of pure and powerful emotion. It does sound like something it might take an hour to attain, it’s not the kind of experience we can encounter every day.
Nonetheless, the demand still stands. Whether we aim for the rawness of Hannah or the rapture of David, the idea is that we do not engage with prayer without attempting to adjust and recalibrate our emotional state.
To pray – le’hitpalel – can be translated more literally as ‘to assess oneself’. This is the requirement: ‘have a good look at yourself, try to rediscover something of your seriousness for life in the process’.
One might ask what all of this emotionality has to do with God – isn’t He supposed to be timeless and unmovable, why does he need us to feel all of this?
On a simple level, He doesn’t need it, we do.
On another level, using a more mature concept of God, to have a profound sense of Divine presence requires being extremely well attuned to one’s emotional world.
The more we observe our emotions, the more clearly we see that they are largely happening outwith our control, and the more humbled we are by them. And that humility, the sense of the self’s smallness in the face of these forces, the sense of their overwhelming reality in the face of our limited and barely real consciousness, that is the starting point for a mode of feeling that might be called ‘religious’.
I contend that in our more elevated moments we are not just high, we are not just experiencing a flood of serotonin. Rather, phenomenologically speaking, we are being lifted, we are connecting with something, we are granted a glimpse, a taste of something elusive, of something utterly beyond our control, of something with its own insouciant reality. We do not just feel, we encounter; we no longer contain our emotions, but they expand and transport us.
It is in this sense that the Divine is real, that it is not just a figment of the imagination, an idealised construct brought into being through the power of our desire. And it is in the build up to prayer, and in the experiences we seek there that we try to remember this.
There is another quote from the Psalms: Prepare their hearts and Your ear will listen (10:17).
I take from this the realisation that the state of our hearts is somewhat beyond us, and that we must hope for some kind of assistance or fortune in even finding the right mood to pray.
Make no mistake: to pray is to dig deep, it is to re-order the manner in which we understand our realities. We might call it an ontological wake up call.
We will never attain these profound experiences all the time. Nonetheless, even at our numbest, may we always remember that it was once our target.